Potential and status of rural tourism development in Thanh Hoa province

10/30/2021 9:56:18 PM

 

Dr. Dao Thanh Thuy, MA. Hoang Hong Anh

 

Abstract

As a land with an agricultural starting point, Thanh Hoa’s residents mainly live in rural areas, and tourism resources such as land, people, and historical and cultural values are favorable conditions for Thanh Hoa to develop various types of tourism, especially rural tourism. Rural tourism development in Thanh Hoa is a new direction based on traditional conditions. This form is the foundation for preserving, promoting national cultural values and protecting the environment. This is a solution to create motivation to build a sustainable new countryside, and at the same time turn Thanh Hoa tourism industry to become a spearhead economic sector. On the basis of assessing the potential and current situation of rural tourism development in Thanh Hoa, solutions are proposed to promote advantages, promote tourism activities, and attract the attention of tourists in the region and abroad.

Keywords: Thanh Hoa, tourism, rural tourism

1. Introduction

Thanh Hoa is an ancient land, a large province (a region) with many ethnic groups. In the process of movement and development of history, rural areas, agriculture and farmers - these three factors play an important role in all fields of economic, political and social life. The countryside is the gathering place of peasant communities, the foundation of Vietnamese culture and civilization. Research on the countryside, agriculture and farmers not only helps to clarify the history but also helps us to partly explain the present life and the future problems of the country.

A developing land with an agricultural starting point, residents mainly live in rural areas, and tourism resources such as land, people, and historical and cultural values are favorable conditions for Thanh Hoa to develop various types of tourism, especially rural tourism. Rural tourism development in Thanh Hoa is a new direction based on traditional conditions. This form is the foundation for preserving, promoting national cultural values and protecting the environment. This is a solution to create motivation to build a sustainable new countryside, and at the same time turn Thanh Hoa tourism industry to become a spearhead economic sector.

The Doi Moi reform, initiated and led by the Communist Party of Vietnam since 1986, has been creating strong changes in the economic, political, cultural and social fields of the country. That process not only changes the face of the city, but also has a strong impact on rural areas. Thanh Hoa changes towards industrialization, urbanization and modernization. Followed by cultural change, many new factors appear intertwined or overlapped on the traditional culture layer. The transformation process includes: changing occupations, structuring employment of the population, land use purposes and infrastructure; transforming social life, spiritual culture and lifestyle. Noticeably, from 2010 to now, the National Target Program on New Rural Construction was approved and put into practice with the goal of building a new countryside with modern socio-economic infrastructure, the economic structure and reasonable organizational forms, linking rural development with urban areas with the direct support of the State. These have brought many changes to rural areas of the country in general, and rural areas of Thanh Hoa in particular.

It can be said that the renovation policies and the national target program on the new rural construction have been changing the face of Thanh Hoa, as well as posing great challenges for this rural area during its development. Resolving the relationship between the new and the old, between tradition and innovation, between conservation and rural development to retain the natural space and cultural features of the community are problems that are being raised. Based on such diverse and rich rural tourism potential, how Thanh Hoa can maximize its advantages, promote rural tourism and attract the attention of domestic and foreign tourists is also the current issue.

2. Contents

2.1. Overview of Thanh Hoa land and potential for rural tourism development in Thanh Hoa

2.1.1. Natural conditions, environmental landscape

Formed by the alluvial deposition of the Ma river system, Thanh Hoa has the basic natural and environmental characteristics of the Ma river delta. This is a large plain with the area of 2.900km2. According to geologists, compared with the Red River Delta, the Ma River Delta was formed earlier and has distinct characteristics. The Ma River Delta is built from the deposition of river delta, alternating with accretion, in which accretion is the main factor.[1]. The plain has a steep slope, steadily inclined from the northwest to the southeast. The surface of the plain is generally not flat, with many remaining hills and mountains scattered in the districts and towns, in which it is concentrated in Dong Son district. Topographical features are suitable for the construction of self-flow irrigation systems and water is easy to absorb in the rainy season, but erosion often occurs. However, this is the land that was built early and right from the time it was being created, it was occupied and explored by humans.[2]

Thanh Hoa's climate is warm, the average temperature is high, the total annual average heat reaches 85000C. The average annual rainfall of the region ranges from 1500mm to 1900mm. Average air humidity ranges from 85% to 86%. In particular, this landscape area is affected by southwest Foehn winds for 3 to 4 months each year. It can be said that the hot and humid tropical climate with a lot of rain is an ecological environment adapted to wet rice and contributes to a typical agricultural economy.

Ma and Chu rivers are large river systems that affect the formation and development of Thanh Hoa as well. The upper flow basins of these two rivers pass through mostly green rock areas, including mostly granite, young granite, vein stone and limestone bedrock. [3]. The formation of populated areas at the beginning of the Bronze Age in the downstream of the Ma River contributed to affirm the role of the Ma river system in the era of ancient Vietnamese civilization's creation. The system of Ma river, Chu river and its tributaries also plays an important role in the exchange between areas in Thanh Hoa and nationwide. In general, Thanh Hoa river system has a great influence on the economic, cultural and social life of the people here.

Generally, favorable natural conditions have created the premise for the formation of residential communities early in history. At the same time, it is also a condition for economic, cultural and social development in different periods of history.

2.1.2. Socio-economic characteristics, traditional culture

Natural conditions, landscape and environment are the basis for creating the necessary conditions for the economic development of Thanh Hoa, especially the agricultural economy and handicraft industries. These create a foundation for Thanh Hoa to develop traditional rural tourism.

From prehistory and early history, people in the Ma River basin settled and turned wasteland, river sand dunes into fertile plains, crowded villages. They were the beginning inhabitants of a primitive agricultural economy, growing rice, along with basic crafts such as stone-making, metallurgy, and pottery. The first economic picture in Thanh was created.

Entering the stage of Dong Son culture, Thanh Hoa's economy developed a new step. Rice farming played a dominant role, along with the perfection of handicrafts from the Pre-Dong Son period. Types of production tools excavated at some archaeological dig sites such as Thieu Duong and Dong Son include plowshares, sickles, shovels, spades, especially butterfly-shaped plows - "a signature of Thanh Hoa" - has demonstrated the development of agriculture.

Handicraft is one of the basic economic sectors, occupying an important position in the traditional economic structure of Thanh Hoa. Traces of the existence of crafts have been found from prehistoric and prehistoric times.

From the first residential areas of Vietnamese, with the agricultural economy of wet rice cultivation as the main, the first villages were formed on Thanh Hoa. From the Dinh to the Early Le dynasty, under the conditions of national unity, from those first villages, the central government had conditions to control more closely the villages through land policy.[4].

In general, over the past 4 centuries (the Ly, Tran, and Ho dynasty), the agricultural economy of Thanh Hoa in general never stopped developing. Cultivation area was expanded along with the formation and development of "Huong" and "Giap" and villages. Especially on the basis of public land along with social division, the private ownership of land gradually expanded, marking the development of history.

It can be said that the traditional socio-economic development follows the ups and downs of the Thanh Hoa's history. Although there were periods of upheaval, difficulties and crises, in general, throughout its history, Thanh Hoa was still considered a typical agricultural region of the North Central region.

2.1.3. Village and village culture – potential for rural tourism development

Ma river basin in the land of early Thanh, Thanh Hoa province today is an ancient land, where the mark of a culture shines in the development of the national cultural history. On that land, “the first groups of people came, lived, developed, and existed to become a community. They became a group, an ethnic group, following the familiar pattern, then settled down in residence, occupation and continued living together for a long time, sticking with each other thanks to the effort and sharing…and so on, gradually, they created the concept of a village.”[5]. Villages are formed, developed and as a result, its culture is shaped. According to statistics of Le Kim Lu in The Yearbook of the scientific conference on village culture 1990, Thanh Hoa has 1793 villages. There are famous villages in terms of academics achievements, such as: Thi Hoang Hoa, Dong Son course; There are villages specializing in martial arts and arts: "Trò Triền, vật Bộc, rối Si; Cơm đắp kẻ Lở, cơm thi Kẻ Lào"; there are villages specializing in traditional crafts: carpentry (Dat Tai), blacksmithing (Tat Tac), bronze casting (Che village), stone chisels (Noi village), jar making (Lo Chum), knitting craft (Giang village) …

Along with the villages' formations and names is the birth of village culture. Village culture is first expressed through idyllic, authentic and rustic natural landscapes. Attached to each relic and scenic spot, there are the fairy tales, anecdotes, and poems that create unique nuances for each locality. In addition to this is the ancient and peaceful appearance of the landscape appreciating traditional Vietnamese rural shades such as banyan trees, wells, communal courtyards, fields, areca trees, banana bushes... In each village, there are more products with distinctive local features from traditional foods and crafts, which are called "domestic products".

Thanh Hoa village culture is expressed through the artistic creations of local people. The types of art associated with the village name can be mentioned such as: “Run village, Bon village with many performances, boatmen from Hoang Hoa to Vinh Loc with resounding Ma River chants, and the folk songs of the local artists from Yen Dinh village, Thieu Hoa. Also, not to mention the traditional "xuong" and "khap" dances on the "long ma", "long xam"[6].

Along with the chants, cultural songs of Thanh Hoa village are expressed through traditional religious activities: chèo chải (Bung village), boat racing (village in Vinh Loc).

It can be said that a system of villages stretching from the mountains, plains to the sea with unique features of traditional culture is the rich potential for Thanh Hoa to develop rural tourism and attract domestic and foreign tourists.

2.2. The current situation of rural tourism development in Thanh Hoa

2.2.1. Current policies to support and mobilize resources for rural tourism development in Thanh Hoa

In the current development process, when an important means of production in agriculture, land, is gradually shrinking due to urbanization, the rural tourism development in localities with great potential is determined as one of the solutions to promote sustainable new rural construction. "Effective development of rural tourism will contribute to the realization of two important political goals at the same time, which are to develop tourism into a spearhead economic sector and to achieve the national goal of sustainable new rural construction."[7].

On the basis of exploiting local resources to meet the needs of tourists, people will have more job opportunities and increase their income, improve the qualifications of workers and limit spontaneous outmigration from village to urban. At the same time, rural tourism development also contributes to the restoration and promotion of traditional cultural values, promoting regional and inter-regional cultural and economic exchanges.

Recognizing the important role of rural tourism, in recent years, localities across the country, including Thanh Hoa, have developed many mechanisms and policies to create motivation for the development of agricultural production. These contribute to the formation of production models according to the conditions of each region.

In 2019, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism submitted to the Prime Minister (Report No. 166/TTr-BVHTTDL) for approval of the Project "Development of rural tourism in association with new rural construction". The project has assessed the shortcomings and limitations of rural tourism, thereby proposing solutions and mechanisms and policies to develop rural tourism in the coming period in order to maximize the advantages of agriculture and rural areas, contributing to the achievement of the national goal of sustainable new rural development.

On June 24, 2021, the Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism issued Document No. 2357/SVHTTDL-NSVHGD on the implementation of the Joint Program No. 137/CTPH-VPĐPNTM-SVHTTDL, dated March 10, 2021 of the Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Provincial New Rural Construction Coordination Office on building cultural life, developing rural tourism, preserving and promoting cultural values in the National Target Program new rural construction in Thanh Hoa province, period 2021 - 2025. Accordingly, the Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism proposed the People's Committees of districts, towns and cities to develop a plan to implement the coordination program No. 137/CTPH-VPĐPNTM-SVHTTDL, which focuses on: effective implementation of the Movement "All people unite to build cultural life", associated with the Campaign "All people unite to build new rural areas and civilized cities"; Building and developing agricultural and rural tourism models; farm tourism, ecotourism; implementing tourism promotion and advertising activities, building a network of typical rural tourism destinations and products associated with new rural construction. Strengthen training to improve the quality of human resources for rural tourism. Organize and coordinate in organizing training courses, teaching and preserving intangible cultural forms, especially festivals, folklore, and traditional craft villages associated with building rural cultural life which serves the development of various types of community tourism.

Also in June 2021, Thanh Hoa Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism has implemented a plan to innovate business methods and consume agricultural products in the 2021-2025 period, with an orientation to 2030, through tourism promotion associated with introducing agricultural products, local specialties and OCOP products.

In the period of 2018-2020, Thanh Hoa has organized to research and prepare 15 zoning plans for rural and community tourism destinations with a total investment capital of 10,901 million VND such as: Detailed construction planning ratio 1 /2000 of Son - Ba - Muoi tourist area, Lung Cao commune; Planning on subdivision 1/2000 of Thac Hieu tourist area; Planning of Muon waterfall tourist area, Ba Thuoc district; Planning on subdivision of Elephant waterfall, Thach Thanh district; General planning 1/10,000 urban area for eco-tourism resort and high-class entertainment in Ben En, Nhu Thanh district[8]. In addition, there are a number of rural tourism development projects that have been implemented in Thanh Hoa such as:

- The project of building a model of a community tourist spot in Kho Muong village, in Thanh Son commune, Ba Thuoc district, Thanh Hoa province (2020-2023).

- Linh Ky Moc educational and ecological farm, Van Thinh village, Quang Thinh.

- Queen Farm hi-tech agricultural zone (Tan Phong town, Quang Xuong); Golden Cow Farm, Hon Mu Farm (Thuong Xuan), Anh Duong Farm (Yen Dinh).

- Craft village tourist attractions associated with some typical agricultural products such as: Luan Van pomelo, Mai An Tiem watermelon, Khuc Phu fish sauce, Ba Lang, Quang village liquor, Chi Ne liquor, Thuong Xuan cinnamon essential oil, Tu Tru gai cake, Nga Son sedge mat...

Regarding the initial investment in material and technical facilities for people to participate in rural and community tourism activities, in the period 2018-2020, Thanh Hoa has invested 10,000 million VND to support these activities: restore craft villages, build craft demonstration sites, restore performances, music, folk songs, folk dances, traditions of some ethnic groups[9].

It can be said that the policies to support rural tourism development of the central and local governments have created motivation for local authorities, businesses, tourists and the communities to achieve the goal of bringing rural and other types of tourism into a spearhead economic sector.

2.2.2. Tourism business activities in the field of rural tourism

By 2020, rural tourism associated with the community in Thanh Hoa province had created jobs for 2,420 workers, accounting for 6.2% of the total number of tourism workers in the province. In which, there are 1390 tourism workers who have been trained, accounting for 57.4% of the total number of tourism workers, the remaining 1030 workers have general qualifications, mainly farmers who have not yet passed the training courses. [10]. In particular, the basic occupational and foreign language skills of the workforce in this field are still weak. This is a limitation in welcoming foreign tourists to visit and experience.

A survey in Pu Luong (Ba Thuoc) shows that 100% of homestay service households participate in annual training courses of the tourism industry. However, the households here believe that some contents such as housekeeping services designed for hotels are not suitable for the characteristics of rural tourism. Some argue that the training program on food safety and hygiene has hardly changed over the years, therefore it has not attracted the attention of the tourist community.

Regarding the number of tourists exploring rural tourism in Thanh Hoa, in 2020 and 2021, the province has attracted 2,680,000 visitors, the average growth rate of the period is 3.1%/year (including 9,300 international visitors). Total rural tourism revenue reached nearly 3,770 billion VND, of which revenue from international tourists was 6.9 million USD[11]. Many models of tourism development in mountainous rural areas are invested by businesses with revenue of tens of billion VND/year such as: Don, Hieu, and Kho Muong villages, Ba Thuoc district. However, rural tourism activities have only been developed in a few districts, such as Ba Thuoc. According to statistics, in Ba Thuoc, in 2017, welcomed 20,000 visitors, including over 5,800 international visitors; By 2020, it had welcomed more than 50,000 visitors. From the first 2 homestays in 2015, currently, according to survey data, the whole district has 156 households participating in homestay service business. Revenue from tourism was more than 21 billion VND in 2017 and increased to more than 50 billion VND in 2020[12].

2.2.6. Difficulties and limitations in rural tourism development in Thanh Hoa

Although initially there has been local investment and certain contributions to the overall development of tourism in Thanh Hoa, this type of tourism still faces some difficulties.

First of all, rural tourism has not really become popular and received the attention of tourists. Currently, Thanh Hoa tourism is still concentrated mainly in coastal areas. The planning of large-scale agricultural production space to ensure investment attraction for tourism is not really effective. Currently, according to the survey, there are only 2 tourist farms that are capable of serving tourists.

The tourism infrastructure system in the mountainous and rural districts has not really met the needs of tourists. Traffic accessing to tourist areas and attractions is still difficult. In particular, standard sanitation facilities for tourists and environmental sanitation in some localities have not met the requirements.

The majority of rural tourism products are exploited mainly based on natural tourism resources and therefore are poor, monotonous and have no difference. These products just stop at meeting the basic spending level.

Farmers are the main force involved in this type of tourism. However, their income has not been yet ensured, and the participation of many people has not been encouraged. In addition, the is still confusion about tourism activities from most of the rural residents. In the period of 2016-2020, the province had organized 8 training courses in terms of professional skills in tourism for 940 farmers. However, most people did not have time to get acquainted, learn and be fully aware of the profession.

Up to now, except for few typical districts, Thanh Hoa has not yet attracted big investors, despite being potential for tourism development. The cooperation and connection between travel businesses and rural tourist destinations is not regular and effective.

2.3. Solution

* Diversify products, create specialties with distinctive local features.

To exploit and maximize the potential and strengths of Thanh Hoa province in rural tourism development, it is necessary to develop specific policies to encourage the development of rural tourism model. At the same time, increase investment in the construction of tourism infrastructure and facilities, improve the environment, natural landscape and cultural environment, focus on training tourism human resources, promote rural tourism destinations to attract more domestic and international tourists.

A rural tourism model with the following factors needs to be built as well: Farmers directly create agricultural products with tour operators, local authorities and management agencies of agriculture, craft villages and tourism to create products with high quality and professionalism. From there, replicate the model and combine the specific products of each locality to link and form typical tours and tourist routes. This solution aims to overcome the disadvantages of rural tourism in Thanh Hoa, such as: weak and fragmented exploitation of agricultural production, rural areas and tourism factors; no close connection on the basis of forming value chain; spontaneous, small, and duplicated tourism activities in rural areas. Tourist market is not stable and tours are not completely formed.

Use the strengths of the natural landscape, the diversity of ecosystems, the cultural environment, human factors and typical agricultural products while forming typical rural tourism products that are unique to each locality. Avoid duplication, imitation and duplication of products leading to monotonous, poor and less creative rural tourism services. Rural tourism products with high linkage and being able to target the tourist market need to be developed. Main tourism products have to be linked with complementary products to create synthetic ones that bring high value and prolong the stay of guests.

Developing complementary services that aim to diversify tourists' experience and attract more guests, increase their length of stay and their spending should be well-focused. Synchronously invest in a system of standard accommodation service facilities for tourists, have more rural houses, restaurants with local specialties, farms, hotels and camping sites with different scenes to increase the diversity of rural tourism. In addition, encourage the development of such additional services as: participating in unique local cultural activities, outdoor recreational activities: teambuilding, gala, campfire, cultural exchange, country market…; learning experience, studying high-quality farm models, farms, farming areas, harvesting agricultural products; experiencing indigenous life, learning to do agriculture, weave cloth, make crafts, cook...; or performing to guests the making of traditional crafts such as pottery, weaving..., or other folk arts such as Xoe dancing, bamboo dancing...

Traditional cuisine is one of the most attractive products of rural tourism, but most tourists are concerned about food safety. Along with that are the issue of environmental sanitation, livestock, old-fashioned customs or the great curiosity from the locals that affects the psychology of tourists. Therefore, people need to participate in rural tourism activities and at the same time receive training in hospitality and management skills, and need to be instructed on how to ensure hygiene, security and safety for tourists, and also how to use the money collected from tourism services.

*Improve the quality of human resources and services

Tourism managers are directly involved in the management of rural tourism activities and the development of this type of tourism in the locality. Therefore, it is necessary to have a professional training for staff. Focus on short-term training forms and participate in research on rural tourism models both at home and abroad. In addition, it is necessary to organize meetings to exchange experiences in management work between village and district, city officials.

For the locals open training classes on rural tourism, tourism business, food processing, English communication, tourist service skills, etc. to equip people with appropriate knowledge in business tourism, thereby building tourism products to meet the needs of tourists. Participants in tourism activities need to increase the application of science and technology in production but still retain the traditional culture to make a good impression on tourists. Build the image of community tourism, agricultural tourism associated with green - clean - beautiful environment protection to create attraction for domestic and international tourists.

Attention should be paid to building a team of local tour guides with professional presentation and narration skills. In tourist areas, it is necessary to recruit indigenous people who are knowledgeable about local cultural and topographic knowledge, train them to become on-site guides. Moreover, it is crucial to develop explanations about tourist attractions in both Vietnamese and English to guide guests or serve as references for visitors.

*Conserve and promote the value of tourism resources

Rural tourism development should be associated with the protection of resource values and hunger eradication as well as poverty reduction in rural areas. If the tourism development with agricultural and rural development programs, the movement to build a cultural family, the movement of planting trees, afforestation, and other movements are integrated, it will contribute to the sustainability of rural tourism with high efficiency.

Clearly see the negative effects to strictly manage, control, minimize and overcome the negative impacts of tourism activities on the natural environment and the social environment. The phenomenon of natural environmental pollution caused by over-exploitation of tourism resources, trampling on plants and trees, harvesting rare and precious plants, eating and buying rare animals, littering and wastewater, making noise, excessively using clean water and clean air, changing the ecosystem, especially minimizing ecological diversity when tourism develops, commercialization activities, arbitrary construction disrupts the landscape, cultural hybridization...

* Upgrade infrastructure and technical facilities

It can be said that infrastructure such as roads, signs, signboards; facilities such as accommodation, electricity, water, sanitation and technical facilities such as Wi-Fi, Internet are important factors for tourism development at a tourist destination. Without this factor, tourism activities cannot take place smoothly. The design and development of appropriate amenities will create the attraction of the tourist destination.

Each locality developing rural tourism should build a mini museum or a traditional house to store historical and cultural values, showing the cultural characteristics of the community such as living items, labor tools (plow, harrow, pick, shovel, hoe, shovel, bow, etc.), traditional costumes, pictures of local residents' lives. This will be an ideal destination in the journey of discovery and experience of visitors.

Besides the traditional-oriented facilities with the traditional cultural characteristics of the locals, there should also be modern service ones to meet the diverse needs of visitors.

* Strengthening the role of tour operators

Promote the role of tour operators in connecting and bringing visitors to attractions, accommodation and purchase of agricultural products. Develop close linkage between parties in the development model of agri-ecotourism: farmers - tour operators - localities - state management agencies in tourism and agriculture.

In addition, it is necessary to boost communication and promotion of agricultural tourism products and restore traditional cultural values of the nation in order to gradually develop agricultural and rural tourism.

3. Conclusion

Rural Vietnam in general and rural Thanh Hoa in particular are facing many new challenges, many villages have received the wave of urbanization and transformed themselves from the traditional rural community into the city. Many cultural values and traditional professions fade away. Farmers left the village to live on the street, the process of free migration has disrupted the population and the traditional village structure and affected the scale and urban structure. Therefore, developing tourism associated with agriculture, rural areas and farmers is an effective way to increase job creation and income, benefit local communities, and motivate villagers to stay and establish a business, therefore help reduce the overpopulation problems for big cities. This is an effective and sustainable direction.

Rural tourism contributes to preserve and promote national cultural values, while protecting the environment and gradually making tourism in general and agricultural rural tourism in Thanh Hoa in particular become the leading economic sector.

To maximizing Thanh Hoa rural tourism's potential and overcome difficulties and limitations, it requires not only local authorities at all levels to have appropriate guiding, planning and development policies, but also each individual, family and community to have a sense of responsibility and understanding in this tourism activity.

References

[1] Thanh Hoa History Research and Compilation Board (1994), History of Thanh Hoa, Volume 1, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi.

[2] Pham Van Dau (2004), Outlining the economic history of Thanh Hoa, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi.

[3] District Party Committee - People's Council, People's Committee of Dong Son District (2006), Geography of Dong Son district, Thanh Hoa province, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi.

[4] Dao Thi Hoang Mai (2014), “Rural tourism from theory to practice”, Economic Research Journal, number 432. 5. Nguyen Thi Thanh Ngan (2021), Cooperation between stakeholders in sustainable rural tourism development: A case study in Lam Dong province, Doctoral thesis in Economic Management, National Economics University, Hanoi.

[5] Provincial Party Committee, People's Council - People's Committee of Thanh Hoa Province (2004), Thanh Hoa Geography, Volume II – Culture and Society.

[6] Ngo Thi Huyen Trang (2020), Research on the participation of people in the management of rural tourism development in the Northeast region of Vietnam, Thesis majoring in Economic Management, University of Economics and Business Administration - Thai Nguyen University.

[7] Trinh Thi Thu, Pham Quoc Tri, Pham Van Chien, Hoang Thi Thu Huong, "People's participation in community-based rural tourism development in the North Central region", Journal Central Social Sciences, No. 4(66), 2020, p. 14-24. 

[8] Thanh Hoa Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism, “Report on potential, current situation and development orientation of rural tourism”, January 2021.

[9] Le Thi Thanh Yen, Vo Nguyen Thong, Tran Thanh Thao Uyen, "Development of the rural tourism in Dong Thap province today", Journal Science Dong Thap University, No. 2.2020, p.110-120.

 

Information of the authors

1.Name: Đao Thanh Thuy – PhD

Worked at: Hong Duc University

Position: Lecturer

Phone:0912715082                                          Email: daothanhthuy@hdu.edu.vn

Address: 565 Quang Trung, Dong Ve Ward, Thanh Hoa City, Thanh Hoa Province

2.Name: Hoang Hong Anh – Master

Worked at: Hong Duc University

Position: Lecturer

Phone: 0914243265                                         Email: hoanghonganh@hdu.edu.vn

Address: 565 Quang Trung, Dong Ve Ward, Thanh Hoa City, Thanh Hoa Province

 

 

 

[1] Thanh Hoa History Research and Compilation Board (1994), History of Thanh Hoa, Volume 1, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi. p.126

[2] Pham Van Dau (2004), Outlining the economic history of Thanh Hoa, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi. p.13

[3] District Party Committee - People's Council, People's Committee of Dong Son District (2006), Geography of Dong Son district, Thanh Hoa province, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi. p.16.

 

[4] District Party Committee - People's Council, People's Committee of Dong Son District (2006), Geography of Dong Son district, Thanh Hoa province, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi. p.276

[5] Provincial Party Committee, People's Council - People's Committee of Thanh Hoa Province (2004), Thanh Hoa Geography, Volume II – Culture and Society. p.103

[6] Provincial Party Committee, People's Council - People's Committee of Thanh Hoa Province (2004), Thanh Hoa Locality, Episode II – Culture and Society, p.106

[7] Ngo Thi Huyen Trang (2020), Research on the participation of people in the management of rural tourism development in the Northeast region of Vietnam, Thesis majoring in Economic Management, University of Economics and Business Administration - Thai Nguyen University.90.

[8] Thanh Hoa Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism, “Report on potential, current situation and development orientation of rural tourism”, January 2021.

[9]Thanh Hoa Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism, "Report on potential, current situation and orientation of rural tourism development", January 2021.

[10] Thanh Hoa Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism, "Report on potential, current situation and orientation of rural tourism development", January 2021.

[11] Thanh Hoa Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism, "Report on potential, current situation and orientation of rural tourism development", January 2021.

[12]Data provided by Thanh Hoa Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism.

 

 

(Bài đăng trong Hội Thảo Quốc Tế Ted 2021, tr.1190-1197)

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